Assessment of the essential elements and heavy metals content of the muscle of Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) from the south Caspian Sea and potential risk assessment



Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in muscles of Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) collected from the central part of the southern end of the Caspian Sea during February 2011. Except for silver (Ag) and nickel (Ni) which were below the limits of detection, the average levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were 1.61, 0.025, 0.038, 0.176, 1.32, 5.83, 0.238, 0.869, 1.93 and 8.05 mg kg-1 wet weight, respectively. Although the maximum levels of Pb were higher than that recommended in some international guidelines (i.e.WHO