Extraction and investigation of biological activities of dioctyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate from marine sponge Haliclona (Soestella) caerulea Larak Island, Persian Gulf


Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Marines are unique resource that provides a diverse array of natural products, primarily from invertebrates such as sponge. As infectious diseases evolve and develop resistance to existing pharmaceuticals, these ecosystems provide novel leads against microbial, cancer, and viral diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate antimicrobial and antifungal activities of derivatives of phthalates extracted from Haliclona (Soestella) caerulea on some pathogenic organisms. Sponge samples from Larak Island were collected by divers at a depth of 10 meters. After that, marine sponge extract collection was done by chloroform-methanol extraction as a solvent and through chromatography column and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on the sponge sample, components of dioctyl phthalate (DOTP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were purified and identified. Anti-microbial and antifungal activity of extracted components were investigated by means of bacterial broth dilution method and microdilution broth method and minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC), minimum bactericide concentration (MBC), and minimum fungal concentration (MFC) were determined. The results indicated that DOTP of H. (Soestella) caerulea was active on Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus bacteria. MBC values of DOTP were determined as 2000 μg/m. DBP of H. (Soestella) caerulea was active on gram positive bacteria. MBC values of DOTP were determined as 1000 μg/m for B. cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and 500 μg/mL for B. subtilis. MFC values of DOTP and DBP were determined as 1000 μg/m and 2000 for Candida albicans. Hence it is assumed that the sponge Haliclona (Soestella) caerulea exhibited high antimicrobial activity.