Effectiveness of dietary Moringa oleifera leaf powder and extract in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)


1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.



Moringa oleifera is an important herbal plant with a valuable source of major essential nutrients and nutraceuticals. In this study, we supplemented the diet of Litopenaeus vannamei with different levels of M. oleifera leaf powder (MLP) and extract (MLE) and evaluated the growth, survival, body and fatty acid composition, hemolymph biochemistry, antioxidant status, and salinity stress resistance after six weeks of feeding. In total, 840 shrimp (2.6±0.02 g) were divided into seven groups including the shrimp fed with the basal diet (control), and the diets containing different levels of MLP [25 (MLP25), 50 (MLP50), and 100 (MLP100) g kg-1] and MLE [0.25 (MLE0.25), 0.5 (MLE0.5), and 1.0 (MLE1.0) %]. The results showed a lower FCR value in MLP25 and MLE0.5 fed shrimp as well as a higher survival rate in MLP100 and MLE0.5 fed shrimp than those of the control group. Dietary MLP enhanced the body contents of lipid and fatty acids (i.e., the pentadecanoic acid and the omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids). The MLP100 diet remarkably enhanced the hemolymph total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of shrimp. On the other hand, the AST and ALT activities were significantly reduced in the shrimp fed with MLP25, MLE0.25 and MLE0.5 diets. MLP and MLE in the diet of shrimp also led to a significant increase in the hemolymph antioxidant enzymes activity. Moreover, the shrimp fed with MLP50 diet showed a significantly higher survival rate in response to the high salinity stress compared to the control group. In conclusion, the supplementation of both MLP and MLE in the diet of L. vannamei showed beneficial effects on the performance of the shrimp farming industry.